Statistical data 1.1

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RSS is typically used to disseminate news items, such as press releases. However, the RSS format lends itself to the display of items not normally thought of as news, such as units of statistical data. Almost all central banks publish two types of statistical data of particular interest to many of their users, and which can be consistently represented using RSS-CB -- exchange rates and interest rates.

This document specifies the extension of RSS-CB for exchange and interest rates, and gives general guidelines for other types of statistical data. As part of RSS-CB, it follows the RSS-CB specification. It extends that specification by restricting the sub-elements of <item>, and adding new ones. This document covers those extensions.

Contents

Exchange Rates

As published on most central bank websites, exchange rates contain certain pieces of information that are required to make them unique and unambiguous:

  • country reporting the rate
  • base currency
  • target currency
  • units of target currency reported as equivalent to units of base currency
  • date of observation
  • institution reporting the rate
  • type of rate: noon, spot, closing, bid, asked, et al.

This leads to an RSS-CB feed with this structure:

Sample RSS-CB exchange rate feed

<rdf:RDF xmlns="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/" xmlns:cb="http://www.cbwiki.net/wiki/index.php/Specification_1.1" 
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" 
xmlns:nyfed="http://www.newyorkfed.org/xml/schemas/metadata/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" 
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# rdf.xsd">
  <channel rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/rss/feeds/fxrates12_EUR.xml">
    <title>NY Fed | EUR FX</title>
    <link>http://newyorkfed.org/rss/index.html</link>
    <description>Imagine a description here.</description>
    <items>
      <rdf:Seq>
        <rdf:li rdf:resource="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/fxrates/noon.cfm/EUR/110707"/>
      </rdf:Seq>
    </items>
    <dc:publisher>Federal Reserve Bank of New York</dc:publisher>
    <dcterms:license>http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/fxrates/noon.cfm#disclaimer</dcterms:license>
  </channel>
  <item rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/fxrates/noon.cfm/EUR/110707">
    <title xml:lang="en">US: 1.4667 USD = 1 EUR 2007-11-07 NYFed noon buying</title>
    <link>http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/fxrates/noon.cfm/EUR</link>
    <description xml:lang="en">1 European Monetary Union Euro buys 1.4667 United States Dollars</description>
    <dc:date>2007-11-07T12:00:00-05:00</dc:date>
    <dc:language>en</dc:language>
    <cb:statistics>
      <cb:country>US</cb:country>
      <cb:institutionAbbrev>NYFed</cb:institutionAbbrev>
      <cb:exchangeRate>
        <cb:value decimals="4">1.4667</cb:value>
        <cb:baseCurrency>EUR</cb:baseCurrency>
        <cb:targetCurrency>USD</cb:targetCurrency>
        <cb:rateType>noon foreign exchange rates</cb:rateType>
        <cb:observationPeriod frequency="daily">2007-11-07T12:00:00-05:00</cb:observationPeriod>
      </cb:exchangeRate>
    </cb:statistics>
  </item>
</rdf:RDF>

<title>

As discussed in the user guide, some RSS readers display only the <title> for each <item> in a feed. Furthermore, some readers will truncate the <title> at around 50 characters. So it is important that all of the essential information about an exchange rate be expressed within the <title>, and in 50 characters or fewer.

In the example above, these RSS readers would display:


US: 1.4667 USD = 1 EUR 2007-11-07 NYFed noon buyin
Field separation

RSS-CB statistical feeds will be consumed by a variety of machine processes created by their consumers. For this reason, the fields are separated into individual elements within the RSS file. The title is intended primarily to give human readers all relevant information at a glance. However, to allow a process the additional option of parsing only the title, the information in the title is separated by set punctuation and blank spaces, until the last field, which may contain embedded blanks.

Field order and punctuation

To meet the needs of human users, the <title> has the more significant information before the less significant. The order is identity of country, units of target currency, code for target currency, units of base currency (normally 1, but possibly another power of 10), code for base currency, date of rate, institution, and type of rate.

The title has set punctuation. With this punctuation, a title has these elements, in this order:

  • Country code
  • colon
  • blank space
  • Units of target currency
  • blank space
  • Target currency code
  • blank space
  • equal sign
  • blank space
  • Units of base currency (set to a power of 10, normally '1')
  • blank space
  • Base currency code
  • blank space
  • Date (ISO-8601 format)
  • Institution identifier
  • Rate name

attribute rdf:about

Required Each value of an rdf:about attribute must be unique within an RSS document. This may require the construction of artificial URIs in an RSS feed that contains items for different exchange rates. Such URIs can be constructed with anchor tags. For example, if an actual resource is http://www.acb.org/fx/, two different items could be distinguished as http://www.acb.org/fx/#MXP and http://www.acb.org/fx/#ZAR.

<description>

Required The specification offers no guidance on the content of this element. In the example above, it is fairly verbose text. Some RSS readers will display the contents of this field, so institutions may find it useful.

<dc:date>

Required This element contains the date of the publication of the feed.See User Guide

<cb:statistics>

Required This element has three required child elements, the third of which is a choice among statistics application subtypes. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:country>

Required. This element contains the ISO [1] value for the country responsible for the observation. The value is identical to the first field of the title, without the colon. See User Guide.

<cb:institutionAbbrev>

Required This element contains the abbreviation that signifies the identity of the institution. It contains no blanks. It is identical to the seventh field of the title.

<cb:exchangeRate>

Required. This element has five required child elements. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:exchangeRate><cb:value>

Required. This contains the value of the observation of the target currency, expressed in units of the base currency. The value is identical to the second field of the title. See User Guide

decimals attribute

Required: This attribute contains the value of the decimal places used to express the value of the exchange rate. In the schema for exchange rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide

unit_mult attribute

Required: This attribute contains an exponent of 10. The default is 0, for stating the baseCurrency in terms of 1 unit. See User Guide

<cb:exchangeRate><cb:baseCurrency>

Required. This element contains the code from the ISO 4217 currency codes. The value is identical to the fifth field of the title.

<cb:exchangeRate><cb:targetCurrency>

Required. This element contains the code from the ISO 4217 currency codes. The value is identical to the third field of the title.

<cb:exchangeRate><cb:rateType>

Required. This element free text. It is identical to the final field of the title.

<cb:exchangeRate><cb:observationPeriod>

'Required. This element is free text and indicates the period for which the observation captures the economic phenomenon. It has one required attribute, "frequency" and is the sixth field of the title.

frequency attribute

'Required. This attribute contains the value of the frequency. In the schema for exchange rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide_1.1

Interest Rates

Sample RSS-CB interest rate feed

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/" 
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" 
xmlns:cb="http://www.cbwiki.net/wiki/index.php/Specification_1.1" xmlns:nyfed="http://www.newyorkfed.org/xml/schemas/metadata/" 
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# rdf.xsd">
  <channel rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/rss/feeds/fedfunds.xml">
    <title>NY Fed | Fed Funds</title>
    <link>http://newyorkfed.org/rss/index.html</link>
    <description>Imagine a description here.</description>
    <items>
      <rdf:Seq>
        <rdf:li rdf:resource="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm/081107"/>
      </rdf:Seq>
    </items>
    <dc:publisher>Federal Reserve Bank of New York</dc:publisher>
    <dcterms:license>http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm#disclaimer</dcterms:license>
  </channel>
  <item rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm/081107">
    <title>US: 4.58 FedFunds 2007-11-08 NYFed daily fed funds effective rate</title>
    <link>http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/fedfundsdata.cfm</link>
    <description xml:lang="en">daily federal funds effective rate for 2007-11-08 is 4.58</description>
    <dc:date>2007-11-08T00:00:00-5:00</dc:date>
    <dc:language>en</dc:language>
    <cb:statistics>
      <cb:country>US</cb:country>
      <cb:institutionAbbrev>NYFed</cb:institutionAbbrev>
      <cb:interestRate>
        <cb:value decimals="2">4.58</cb:value>
        <cb:rateName>FedFunds</cb:rateName>
        <cb:rateType>daily fed funds effective</cb:rateType>
        <cb:observationPeriod frequency="daily">2007-11-08T00:00:00-5:00</cb:observationPeriod>
      </cb:interestRate>
    </cb:statistics>
  </item>
</rdf:RDF>

<title>

Required. As discussed above, some RSS readers display only the <title> for each <item> in a feed, and some readers will truncate this field at around 50 characters. So it is important that all of the essential information about any datum be expressed within the first 50 characters of <title>.

In the example above, RSS readers would display:

 US: 4.58 FedFunds 2007-11-08 NYFed daily fed funds effective rate
Field separation

RSS-CB statistical feeds will be consumed by a variety of machine processes created by their consumers. For this reason, the fields are separated into individual elements within the RSS file. Should a process wish to parse the title, the six fields it contains are separated by blank spaces. The sixth and last field may itself have embedded blank characters (as in "daily fed funds effective rate").

Field order and punctuation

To meet the needs of human users, the <title> has the more significant information before the less significant. The order is ISO [4] country code followed by a colon, value of the interest rate, rate name, date of the observation, institution (abbreviation), rate type.

The title has set punctuation. With this punctuation, a title has these elements, in this order:

  • Country code
  • colon
  • blank space
  • rate observation
  • blank space
  • rate name
  • blank space
  • date (ISO-8601 format)
  • blank space
  • institutional identifier
  • blank space
  • rate type

<description>

Required The specification offers no guidance on the content of this element. In the example above, it contains the explanation given on the New York Fed site for the rate being described.

<dc:date>

Required. This contains the date of the publication of the feed. See User Guide.

<cb:statistics>

Required This element has three required child elements, the third of which is a choice among statistics application subtypes. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:country>

Required. This element contains the ISO value for the country responsible for the observation. The value is identical to the first field of the title, without the colon. See User Guide.

<cb:institutionAbbrev>

Required. This element contains the abbreviation that signifies the identity of the institution. It contains no blanks. It is identical to the fifth field of the title.

<cb:interestRate>

Required. This element has four required child elements. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:interestRate><cb:value>

Required. This element contains the value of the observation, expressed as a decimal. The value is identical to the second field of the title. See User Guide.

decimals attribute

Required. This attribute contains the value of the decimal places used to express the value of the interest rate. In the schema for interest rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide.

<cb:interestRate><cb:rateName>

Required. This element contains the higher-level local name for the rate. For the New York Fed, Fed Funds denotes a set of observations that include the daily effective rate, the high and low points in the range for the observation period, and more. This field indicates only the higher-level name. The value is identical to the third field of the title. See User Guide.

<cb:interestRate><cb:rateType>

Required. This element contains a free text value describing the rate type as identified by the reporting institution. It is a refinement of the rate name. The value is identifical to the final field of the title. See User Guide.

<cb:interestRate><cb:observationPeriod>

Required. This element contains a text string and indicates the period for which the observation captures the economic phenomenon. It has one required attribute, "frequency" and is the fourth field of the title.

frequency attribute

Required. This contains the value of the frequency. In the schema for interest rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide

Transactions

Sample RSS-CB transaction feed

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/" 
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" 
xmlns:cb="http://www.cbwiki.net/wiki/index.php/Specification_1.1" xmlns:nyfed="http://www.newyorkfed.org/xml/schemas/metadata/" 
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# rdf.xsd">
  <channel rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/rss/feeds/tomo.xml">
    <title>NY Fed | Temporary Open Market Operations</title>
    <link>http://newyorkfed.org/rss/index.html</link>
    <description>Imagine a description here.</description>
    <items>
      <rdf:Seq>
        <rdf:li rdf:resource="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/temp.cfm/09112007/1"/>
      </rdf:Seq>
    </items>
    <dc:publisher>Federal Reserve Bank of New York</dc:publisher>
    <dcterms:license>http://www.newyorkfed.org/termsofuse.html</dcterms:license>
  </channel>
  <item rdf:about="http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/temp.cfm/09112007/1">
    <title>US: $3.250B repo-5days 2007-11-09 NYFed temporary open market operations</title>
    <link>http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/omo/dmm/temp.cfm</link>
    <description>Imagine a description here.</description>
    <dc:date>2007-11-09T00:00:00-5:00</dc:date>
    <dc:language>en</dc:language>
    <cb:statistics>
      <cb:country>US</cb:country>
      <cb:institutionAbbrev>NYFed</cb:institutionAbbrev>
      <cb:transaction>
        <cb:value unit_mult="9" decimals="3">3.250</cb:value>
        <cb:transactionName>repo</cb:transactionName>
        <cb:transactionType>temporary open market operations</cb:transactionType>
        <cb:observationPeriod frequency = "daily">2007-11-09T00:00:00-5:00</cb:observationPeriod>
        <cb:transactionTerm>5days</cb:transactionTerm>
      </cb:transaction>
    </cb:statistics>
  </item>
</rdf:RDF>

<title>

Required. As discussed above, some RSS readers display only the <title> for each <item> in a feed, and some readers will truncate this field at around 50 characters. So it is important that all of the essential information about any datum be expressed within the first 50 characters of <title>.

In the example above, RSS readers would display:

 US: $3.250B repo-5days 2007-11-09 NYFed temporary 
Field separation

RSS-CB statistical feeds will be consumed by a variety of machine processes created by their consumers. For this reason, the fields are separated into individual elements within the RSS file. Should a process wish to parse the title, the six fields it contains are separated by blank spaces. The sixth and last field may itself have embedded blank characters (as in "permanent open market operations").

Field order and punctuation

To meet the needs of human users, the <title> has the more significant information before the less significant. The order is identity of ISO country code followed by a colon, transaction value, transaction name, date, institution (abbreviation), transaction type.

The title has set punctuation. With this punctuation, a title has these elements, in this order:

  • Country code
  • colon
  • blank space
  • value observation
  • blank space
  • transaction name (if transaction term is used, it is concatenated to the transaction name using a hyhen)
  • blank space
  • date (ISO-8601 format)
  • blank space
  • institutional identifier
  • blank space
  • transaction type

<description>

Required. The specification offers no guidance on the content of this element. In the example above, it contains the explanation given on the New York Fed site for the rate being described.

<dc:date>

Required. This contains the date of the publication of the feed. See User Guide

<cb:statistics>

This element has three required child elements, the third of which is a choice among statistics application subtypes. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:country>

Required. This element is a code from a controlled vocabulary list from ISO 3166-1. The value is identical to the first field of the title, without the colon.

<cb:institutionAbbrev>

Required. This element contains the abbreviation that signifies the identity of the institution. It contains no blanks. It is identical to the fifth field of the title.

<cb:transaction>

Required. This element has four required child elements and one optional child element. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:transaction><cb:value>

Required. This contains the value of the observation, expressed as a decimal. The value is identical to the second field of the title. See User Guide

unit_mult attribute

Optional. This contains an exponent of 10. The default is 0, for stating the baseCurrency in terms of 1 unit. See User Guide.

decimals attribute

This contains the value of the decimal places used to express the value of the transaction. See User Guide

units attribute

This string contains a description of the units of the datum. It can be a text string with blanks or a value from the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide

<cb:transaction><cb:transactionName>

Required. This element contains the higher-level local name for the transaction. For the New York Fed, CouponPurchase represents one of three types of permanent open market operations conducted. The value is identical to the third field of the title. See User Guide

<cb:transaction><cb:transactionType>

Required. This element contains a free text value describing the transaction type as identified by the reporting institution. It is a refinement of the transaction name. The value is identical to the final field of the title. See User Guide

<cb:transaction><cb:observationPeriod>

Required. This element contains a text string and indicates the period for which the observation captures the economic phenomenon. It has one required attribute, "frequency" and is the fourth field of the title. In the schema for interest rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. See User Guide


frequency attribute

Required. This contains the value of the frequency. See User Guide

<cb:transaction><cb:transactionTerm>

Optional. This contains the term of the transaction and should be concatenated to the transaction name in the title. At the New York Fed, 1day is the transaction term and repo is the is the transaction name in the following example:

 US: $8.750B 1day-repo 2007-04-24 NYFed temporary open market operations

General guidelines for other types of data

While interest rates and exchange rates are obvious common products, central banks produce other data that consumers may wish to receive through RSS. One of the most watched statistics from the Federal Reserve Board, for example, is the Industrial Production index for the manufacturing sector of the US economy. These general guidelines use this release as an example of how a single data point may be presented to an aggregator. The Federal Reserve Board also publishes weekly data on commercial paper outstandings as well as commercial paper rates. Like the transactions data, neither the IP indexes and the outstandings measures fit into the rate mold mentioned previously, so slightly different fields are necessary to correctly represent these data.

Sample RSS-CB commercial paper outstandings feed

<rdf:RDF xmlns="http://purl.org/rss/1.0/" xmlns:cb="http://www.cbwiki.net/wiki/index.php/Specification_1.1" 
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" 
xmlns:nyfed="http://www.newyorkfed.org/xml/schemas/metadata/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" 
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# rdf.xsd">
  <channel rdf:about="http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/cp">
    <title>FRB:Data:CP Foreign nonfinancial outstanding, NSA </title>
    <link>http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/cp/about.htm</link>
    <description> Data on Commerical Paper outstanding from the Federal Reserve are derived from data supplied by The Depository Trust Company.</description>
    <items>
      <rdf:Seq>
        <rdf:li rdf:resource="http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/cp/outstandings.htm#1"/>
      </rdf:Seq>
    </items>
    <dc:language>en</dc:language>
    <dc:date>2007-05-09T11:30:00-05:00</dc:date>
    <dc:publisher>Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve</dc:publisher>
  </channel>
  <item rdf:about="http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/cp/outstandings.htm#1">
    <title> US: CP 26.0 2007-05-02 FRB Foreign nonfinancial NSA outstanding </title>
    <link> http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/cp/outstandings.htm#1</link>
    <description>Amount of foreign nonfinancial commercial paper outstanding, 
not seasonally adjusted, billions of US dollars. </description>
    <dc:date>2007-05-09</dc:date>
    <dc:language>en</dc:language>
    <cb:statistics>
      <cb:country>US</cb:country>
      <cb:institutionAbbrev>FRB</cb:institutionAbbrev>
      <cb:otherStatistic>
        <cb:value units="Billions of US dollars" unit_mult="1" decimals="1">26.0</cb:value>
        <cb:topic>CP</cb:topic>
        <cb:coverage>Foreign_nonfinancial</cb:coverage>
        <cb:dataType>Not seasonally adjusted</cb:dataType>
        <cb:observationPeriod frequency="weekly" >2007-05-09</cb:observationPeriod>
      </cb:otherStatistic>
    </cb:statistics>
  </item>
</rdf:RDF>

<title>

Required. As discussed previously, some RSS readers display only the <title> for each <item> in a feed and some readers will truncate this field around 50 characters. Therefore it is important that all of the essential information about any datum be expressed within the first 50 characters of <title>.

In the case of the CP outstanding measure mentioned above, RSS readers would display:

 US: CP 26.0 2007-05-02 FRB Foreign nonfinancial NSA outstanding
Field separation

In the case of non-rate data, there may be more than 5 fields needed and they may contain special characters.

Field order

To meet the needs of human users, the <title> has the more significant information before the less significant. The suggested order is:
Country, topic, observation, date of observation, institution, and coverage
There may be some additional geographic or regional indicators necessary as well.

In order to meet the needs of the automated processes, each piece of the title is expressed as a separate tagged element in fields that are likely to be ignored by most RSS readers. The following elements are applicable to general data feeds, in addition to the required <title> and <link> elements.

<description>

Required:Another field that should be used to provide additional information to the human reader. The content of this text field is left to the discretion of the publishing institution.

<dc:date>

Required This element contains the date of the publication of the feed.See User Guide

<cb:statistics>

Required This element has three required child elements, the third of which is a choice among statistics application subtypes. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:country>

Required:This contains the ISO 3166-1 country code of the country reporting the rate, followed by a colon. In the schema for exchange rates, the value will be limited to the enumerated values in a code list. The value is identical to the first field of the title.

<cb:institutionAbbrev>

Required. This element contains the abbreviation that signifies the identity of the institution. It contains no blanks. It is identical to the fifth field of the title.

<cb:otherStatistic>

Required. This element has four required child elements and one recommended. The child elements must appear in the order shown below, and any additional elements, including custom elements, must follow them.

<cb:value>

Required: This element contains the value of the observation. The value will be identical to the third field in the title. For data that are not clearly represented by rates, there are three required attributes

decimals attribute

Required: This attribute contains the number of decimal places used to express the value.

units attribute

Required: This element contains a string description of the units of the datum. It can be a text string with blanks or a value from the enumerated values in a code list.

unit_mult attribute

Required: This attribute contains an exponent of 10. The default is 0, for stating the baseCurrency in terms of 1 unit. See User Guide

<cb:topic>

Required:A string representing the economic area to which the data belong. These can be institution specific. Abbreviations are acceptable as long as they can be easily interpreted from information provided in other fields or draw from established code lists. The value is identical to the second field of the title.

<cb: coverage>

Required:A string indicating the sector, industry or region to which the datum is applicable. The information here is likely represented in the text at the end of the title.

<cb:observationPeriod>

Required: A string indicating the period for which the observation is valid. For data published at a frequency other than daily, a W3C standard date may not be appropriate. This field can contain either the "date as written" for institutions wishing to have the RSS representation match that of a particular publication, or it can follow the following recommended conventions for data of lower frequencies. In all cases, this value should match the period representation in the title. It has one required attribute.

insert DC frequencies and recommendations here

frequency attribute

Required: This contains the value of the frequency. The value maybe limited to the enumerated values in a code list.

<cb:dataType>

Recommended:A string containing additional information about the datum provided. Indications of measure, seasonal adjustment, change calculations should be indicated here. This field is especially important to include if an institution is publishing feeds for data with similar coverage, topic, etc. but that differ only in one specific attribute.