Research papers 1.1

Jump to: navigation, search

This Application Guide illustrates how RSS-CB facilitates creation of consistent RSS feeds representing Working Papers, Economic Review articles and other items of central bank research that typically are attributed to identified authors. Institutional research publications (monthly bulletins, inflation reports etc) are described in a separate application guide, mainly because their titles are regular instead of unique, and their authors (other than the institution as a whole or a particular department) are rarely indicated.

The most common elements of an RSS feed item (title, description and URL) match nicely with the typical components of a research paper (title, abstract and full paper). As full PDF papers always reside on websites of the publishing institution, RSS feeds will increase the likelihood of truly interested readers to visit the website after having read the description of the RSS item.

The attached presentation (PDF version of Impress file, within describes how the content of RSS 1.0 feeds for Research content needs to take into account the various users of the information


RSS-CB for research papers

Proposal: Use the standard RSS item tags, supported by most common RSS readers, to capture the elements necessary for complete identification of the research paper. Additional tags can be included to hold more detailed information that can be parsed by automated processes or used by custom aggregators. Some of these tags are already widely used and well-documented, and can be taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (denoted with the <dc:> namespace). Additional elements, where necessary, can be specialized for use within RSS-CB (denoted by <cb:> tags).

The details of our proposed specification as well as questions for discussion are outlined below.

RSS-CB metadata elements

The following specifications are RSS-CB metadata tags to provide additional machine-actionable information for working paper feeds. When implementing a RSS-CB feed for research papers, please refer to the User guide 1.1, which contains details of which data to enter.


Required. This should contain only the formal title of the content. See User Guide


Recommended. This is the date that the research paper was published. It is useful for consistency with other applications. By way of comparison, dc:date refers to the time the RSS feed was updated.See User Guide


Optional. See User Guide


Recommended. Fields contain words or phrases used to briefly describe the content and allow for search. Multiple instances should be used to cover multiple keywords. Keywords are available to characterize areas covered by a paper even if they are not the formal subject of the paper, and allow for dimensions of characterization not covered by JEL codes or other controlled vocabularies, such as when an article may use but not be about "hedonic prices". See User Guide


Optional. Element can be used to specify alternative formats for the research paper. For example, if the feed link points to an abstract page, this element can be used to indicate the location of a PDF version. See User Guide


Recommended. Contains author identification information. There will be multiple instances of this element where there are multiple authors. Use type="author" to indicate authors. This element can also be used to specify editors. See User Guide


Recommended. The full byline for the paper or publication as it appears in the published version. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide


Recommended. See User Guide

Note on elements outside <cb:paper>


Required: The link points to the landing page for this particular paper as chosen by the institution. It could be a dedicated landing page, an abstract page for the paper, or a full-text version. Although there may be industry "best practices" for site design, those are outside the scope of this project; RSS considerations probably should not determine the structure of the basic content of a web site. Standard RSS readers and aggregators will simply be looking for a single text field containing a URL. This URL should point to whatever the institution considers the main landing page for the content. See User Guide


Recommended: Indicates language of the content described by the item. This appears outside the scope of the <cb:paper> element and appears directly beneath the <item> tag instead. See User Guide

Discussion: The item links to one specific resource, so there should be one specific language indicated by the feed. In an international context such as that for central banks, and with the possibility of aggregated feeds, this field could be useful for any content.

The language of the feeds is a separate issue, and could be determined by a language attribute for various elements. The language of the content should instead by determined by a language element.

Some central banks might implement translations of a given resource.

Example research paper feed

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<channel rdf:about="">
  <title>BIS Working Papers</title>
  <description>BIS Working Papers are written by economists from the BIS and, occasionally,
 from central banks or academic institutions. Some of these papers have been presented at 
BIS meetings or at events organised by other organisations. The views expressed in them are
those of the authors and not necessarily those of the BIS.</description>
      <rdf:li rdf:resource="" />
      <rdf:li rdf:resource="" />
  <dc:publisher>Bank for International Settlements</dc:publisher>

<item rdf:about="">

  <title>Public and private information in monetary policy models</title>
  <description>This paper examines the impact of public information in an economy where
   agents also have diverse private information.It was presented as part of the BIS 
conference on "Monetary stability, financial stability and the business cycle" held on 
8-29 March 2003 and comments from conference participants are included.</description>
    <cb:simpleTitle>Public and private information in monetary policy models</cb:simpleTitle>
    <cb:keyword>imperfect information</cb:keyword> 
    <cb:keyword>monopolistic competition</cb:keyword> 
    <cb:keyword>targeting rule</cb:keyword>
    <cb:keyword>Markov chain</cb:keyword>
    <cb:keyword>Kalman filter</cb:keyword>
      <cb:title>Public and private information in monetary policy model</cb:title>
      <cb:description>PDF version</cb:description>
    <cb:person type="author">
      <cb:nameAsWritten>Jeffery D. Amato</cb:nameAsWritten>
    <cb:person type="author">
      <cb:givenName>Song Shin</cb:givenName>
      <cb:nameAsWritten>Hyun Song Shin</cb:nameAsWritten>
    <cb:byline>Amato, Jeffery D. and Hyun Song Shin</cb:byline>
    <cb:publication>Bank for International Settlements Working Papers</<cb:publication>

Another example item

  <item rdf:about="">
    <title>Global price dispersion: are prices converging or diverging?</title>
      This paper documents significant time-variation in the degree of global price
      convergence over the last two decades. In particular, there appears to be a general Ushaped
      pattern with price dispersion first falling and then rising in recent years, a pattern
      which is remarkably robust across country groupings and commodity groups. This time variation
      is difficult to explain in terms of the standard gravity equation variables
      common in the literature, as these tend not to vary much over time or have not risen in
      recent years. However, regression analysis indicates that this time-varying pattern
      coincides well with oil price fluctuations, which are clearly time-varying and have risen
      substantially since the late 1990s. As a result, this paper offers new evidence on the role
      of transportation costs in driving international price dispersion.
      <cb:simpleTitle>Global price dispersion: are prices converging or diverging?</cb:simpleTitle>
      <cb:person type="author">
        <cb:nameAsWritten>Paul R. Bergin</cb:nameAsWritten>
      <cb:person type="author">
        <cb:nameAsWritten>Reuven Glick</cb:nameAsWritten>
      <cb:byline>Bergin, Paul R. and Glick, Reuven</cb:byline>
      <cb:publicationDate>December 2006</cb:publicationDate>
      <cb:publication>Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper Series</cb:publication>